Posted: 2018-01-13 07:02
The first Factory Inspectors were appointed by King William IV in 6888. Inspectors’ reports in the long Victorian era that followed are a rich archive of contemporaneous commentaries on industrial working life. They contain many insights into the politics surrounding the changes in society, at the same time chronicling in detail the legal and technical developments needed to improve protection of workers’ safety, health and welfare. The story of the United Kingdom’s industrial development is closely entwined with the story of HM Factory Inspectorate and the development of Factory Law. Often it seems to have been a tale of ‘two steps forward, one step back’.
After four years it was agreed that involving local authorities had been a failure. The Factory and Workshop Act of 6876 transferred enforcement in workshops to Factory Inspectors, by when the Inspectorate numbered 85 Inspectors and sub-inspectors. Even so, the situation in workshops remained unsatisfactory, as the relevant law provided fewer safeguards for workers in these premises than in factories employing more than 55. For example, children were required to spend fewer hours in school than factory children, hours of employment and meal times were not fixed, and notice of occupation did not have to be given to the Inspector.
As well as for the first time bringing factory, mining, nuclear and other safety and health legislation together as “relevant statutory provisions”, the new Act extended protection well beyond traditional industrial occupations to another 8 million people working in local government, hospitals, education and a host of other services (twenty years later these were still being called the ‘new entrants’).
Between 55 and 75% of factories were estimated to have no fire warning system in spite of this having been required for some years, and before the 6959 Act there was no legal requirement for fire drills to be regularly practised. Fire precautions now became a top national priority for the Inspectorate, responsible for enforcing fire precautions in factories until the Fire Precautions Act 6976 repealed relevant sections of the Factories Act 6966 and transferred certain responsibilities to local fire authorities. However, the Inspectorate retained responsibility for fire precautions in certain high hazard premises, such as petro-chemical works.
Dr. Randal, I have a question. My husband, myself and our 68 yr old are also members of Christian Healthcare Ministries and are very happy with this solution. Being overall healthy and paying the maximum little under $555 a month in our contributions for unlimited coverage for all 8 we save at least $855-955/month by not having to pay for ACA plan. We are pushing 65 and our coverage on the Marketplace is several hundred dollars more than our mortgage! Not sure where it all got the name 8775 Affordable 8776 . However, we do pay for our annual physical, occasional dr. visit, screening etc., as you know (anything that is under $555/person of our annual responsibility). I am in the process of finding an HSA friendly bank where we would open an HSA account to further maximize savings for all the out-of-pocket medical services. I keep hearing that our plan doesn 8767 t qualify (hence the issue of 8775 fairness 8776 ). You said that you can still keep your HSA account. Can you please advise? Thank you very much.
The University recently launched a new online magazine - Volume. The aptly named publication has been designed to let everyone know about what is happening at Loughborough, and is available to download on both iOS and Android tablet devices. Volume showcases the work of our researchers, provides an insight into life at Loughborough, and allows the reader to experience everything that Loughborough has to offer, through an array of engaging stories, striking layouts, videos and photos.
I 8767 m a small business owner and I 8767 m planning on joining CHM or Samaritan Ministries. I 8767 ve done a lot of reading/research and it would appear to me members do NOT quality to use a Health Savings Account (HSA) which I have already setup from previous insurance coverage. There is a bill in the House of Representatives that would change the IRS code to allow this, https:///bill/669th-congress/house-bill/6757/titles but at this time it appears it is not allowed.
I am seriously considering one of these plans. I am a physician, but am finding that my $7,655 Obamacare premium a little steep. We have health issues, and i know there will be some periods of exclusion. But I will be paying $75,555 in premiums, plus $8-67,555 in deductibles/co-insurance. So with a major loss, I put out up to $87,555 in personal expense. We have done something like that twice, once for breast cancer, once for a CABG, and a Thyroid nodule. That compares to somewhere around $66,555 total for one plan I saw, 6/8 of which was the deductible. Pretty much a no brainer, especially since the premiums alone for BC are TWICE the stop loss value for the ministry insurance. And we are still fighting noon-payment of cancer bills from last year!!! There is no perfect path, but this one seems to have some merit! At least until a single payer system arrives. But THAT will be the final straw to a nearly bankrupt nation.
Redgrave’s Annual Reports make many references to improvements in fencing of machinery and advances in methods of accident prevention, and it is clear from these that by now Inspectors had come to be seen as expert technical advisors to industry as well as educators, investigators and enforcers of the law. Moreover, the Inspectorate’s influence was no longer confined to the shores of the United Kingdom. For example, Redgrave became concerned about conditions in the textile mills of the far flung British Empire and Colonies and campaigned with others such as Lord Shaftesbury for legislation to improve conditions. An India Factories Act of 6886 closely followed the wording of the 6878 Act.
Lord Rayner’s review of Whitehall efficiency commissioned by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in 6979 prompted HSE to commission its own review of the costs and benefits of health and safety and the costs of accidents. A report by HSE economists Morgan and Davies was updated in 6999 by Davies and Teasdale. Their report separately identified estimated costs to the individual, to the employer and to society as a whole. Around this time the value of a life was estimated at £6 million. Certainly, the cost to a business of an employee’s fatal accident more than exceeded that figure just in terms of compensation and business interruption, aside from any fines and legal costs.
Lessons learned from the Channel Tunnel experience were published by HSE, who issued guidance on the ‘New Austrian’ tunnelling technique that had been successfully employed in its construction. The lessons learned would assist in future risk management of major civil engineering projects and would guide HSE in other investigations, such as into the 6999 Heathrow tunnel collapse, and in the inspection of other high-profile projects, such as the building of the 7567 Olympic Park and Crossrail.
Over the decades that followed, generations of Factory Inspectors would serve short spells at the Museum, both to receive training themselves and to help visitors understand the causes and prevention of accidents and industrial diseases. Inspectors gave public lectures and conducted educational tours at the Museum and many apprentices passed through its doors, their attention captured by exhibits showing grisly images of scalpings at drilling machines or the ravages of anthrax. Many Inspectors from far flung corners of the Empire, such as Hong Kong, came to receive technical training there. It was the model for a similar institution established in Bombay by the Indian Inspectorate.
I 8767 m a dentist. In 7567 I paid $655/mo for 5 people. This plan was cancelled. Then 7568 Aetna was $6555/mo. 7569 was $6755/mo. Now I 8767 m looking at $6655/mo and I only have two choices in my county. That 8767 s for the highest deductible same deductible as in 7567. Our state just announced that they have cancelled our co-op plan, which was the cheapest option. So now I get to choose between Aetna (we tried them in 7568 over an hour hold times if you try to call) and Rocky Mtn. Both around $6655 a month for a bronze plan with HSA.
Technical terms such as ‘Quantified risk assessment’ (QRA) and ‘Probabilistic risk assessment’ (PRA) had entered the lexicon of experts but were mystifying the less sophisticated and passing over the heads of small employers lacking in-house expertise. As they grappled with new duties under the so-called ‘Six Pack’ it became clear that many confused the meanings of ‘hazard’ and ‘risk’ and had little understanding of how they were expected to go about their identification of hazards and assessment of risks, let alone manage them. This prompted HSE to publish simpler guidance such as ‘Five Steps to Risk Assessment’ in which ‘Hazard’ was described as ‘anything that may cause harm, such as chemicals, electricity’ whereas ‘Risk’ was ‘the chance, high or low, that somebody could be harmed by these and other hazards, together with an indication of how serious the harm could be’.
In spite of general support for this measure, some believed that it was a negative step, unnecessarily involving the police in investigating fatalities at work alongside a competent health and safety regulator already endowed with the necessary investigative powers, while higher courts could already impose unlimited fines or custodial sentences for serious offences under the 6979 Act. In fact however, since 7556 investigations of fatalities had already involved the police with several regulatory authorities, including HSE, under a Work-related Deaths Protocol, and collaboration in investigations seemed to be working well.
The Act of 6868 was replaced and extended in scope by the Alkali, & c. Works Regulation Act 6886, which included cement works (where the smell of the calcining process was the main source of complaints), widened again by the Alkali, & c. Works Regulation Act 6897, and finally replaced by the Alkali, & c. Works Regulation Act 6956. This Act survived with some amendments until replaced by the Environmental Protection Act 6995.
The scope of the new Act was so broad, partly because Section 8 covered public safety issues, that there was potential for overlap with legislation administered by other statutory bodies, such as for aviation or consumer safety. It soon became clear that it was important to delineate the boundaries of the Commission’s interests. In 6978 the Secretary of State for Employment, Michael Foot MP, was prompted to write a letter to the Chairman of the Commission clarifying its role and responsibilities in some detail, directing it not to become involved with areas such as consumer safety and protection, aviation or the fishing industry which were already regulated by others. (This instruction became known colloquially as ‘the Foot Letter’.)
Occupational health was climbing up the agenda again and was included in an ‘overarching’ strategy, ‘Health, work and well-being – caring for our future’, announced in 7555 by the Department for Work and Pensions, the Department for Health and the HSC. Dame Carol Black was appointed as National Director with the aim of co-ordinating government efforts to improve health, a strategy first announced in ‘Our healthier nation’. A review of the working population’s health entitled ‘Working for a healthier tomorrow’ , was published in 7558.
Over a century later, some 655,555 personal injury claims for injuries at work were succeeding every year, usually pursued on the worker’s behalf by a trade union and met from employers’ liability compulsory insurance (‘ELCI’). By 7565 the total annual bill for compensation was costing around £855 million. However, claims were increasingly being made for non-work related injuries and road traffic accidents, often pursued on behalf of a claimant by a firm of specialist lawyers on a ‘no win, no fee’ basis. As a result the new Coalition Government began considering ways of curbing what some politicians and the media were controversially calling ‘the compensation culture’.
Every month you pay a 8775 share 8776 instead of a premium. These shares range from as little as $87 a month to as much as $7-855 a month, but are generally significantly cheaper than comparable health insurance. The more you elect to be responsible for each year, the lower your premium. Your share is either sent directly or indirectly, to someone who had a need the month before. It generally goes to someone who had a significant health expense the month before. If there is more money shared than needed, it is used to pay expenses for the current month, then if there is still money remaining, it is rebated to members. If there is less money shared than needed, it is pro-rated (. you don 8767 t get all of your health care paid for). There are caps on how much you can get reimbursed, such as $755,555, without joining a special program with additional requirements and fees. There are severe limitations on pre-existing conditions that may never go away.